Tag: Vue.js

Creating a Vue.JS Instance Using its Fundamental Concepts

Vue.js is simple and powerful, and it is easy to learn. Once you understand the basics of the framework, everything will work in just the way you expect. The framework will help you to keep focused on writing the logic of your application instead of remembering a bunch of APIs that are hard to use. This article will help you learn some of the fundamental concepts in Vue.js.

Fundamental concepts

When you start a Vue application, what you need to keep in mind is your application’s logic itself. You don’t need to remember a set of APIs so that you can connect different pieces of your code. Vue.js, which is a progressive framework, provides you with an intuitive way of writing web applications, starting small and growing incrementally into a large-scale application. If you have used other frameworks before, you may wonder why they make things unnecessarily complicated. Now, let’s go through fundamental concepts in Vue.js and create a sample application. You can also access the complete code for this article at https://github.com/PacktPublishing/Building-Applications-with-Spring-5-and-Vue.js-2/tree/master/Chapter02/MessagesApp.

Creating a Vue instance

Creating a Vue instance is the start of every Vue.js application. Typically, a Vue application consists of two types of Vue instance‚ÄĒthe root Vue instance and component instances. You create the root instance with the Vue function, as follows:

The options object here is where you describe your application. Vue.js takes this object and initializes the Vue instance. Let’s create a simple application, called the Messages App and see how to use the options object. This SPA has the following features:

  • Add a message
  • View messages list
  • Delete a message
  • Automatically disable the add feature under certain conditions

We will start by creating the index.html file and, from there; we will build our application incrementally. Let’s have a look at the index.html file:

In line 5, we create a 

 element with an app id in the DOM. And in line 9, we mount our application to this element by using the el property of the options object. el is short for element, and its value can be a CSS selector string, like the one we use here, '#app', or it can be the HTMLElement itself, document.getElementById('app'). In line 8, we assign the Vue instance to the vm variable, which is short for ViewModel.

Now, let’s define our data model of the application. We need an array to hold those added messages and a string to bind to the form’s input which will accept new messages. Here is how the data object appears:

We add the data object using object literals. As you can see, it is quite straightforward. We give them initial values so that you can easily tell that messages is an array and newMessage is a string. Providing initial values for the data object properties is a good practice. It not only helps you understand the data model better, but also makes those properties reactive by default. 

Besides using a plain object as the value of the data property of the options object, you can also use a function that returns a plain object, as in the example:

Using a function is required when you define the data structure for a component because, in that way, Vue.js will always create a fresh data model for the new component. If you use a plain object to define a component’s data model, all of the instances of that component will share the same data object, which is not desired. For our root Vue instance here, we are safe to use a plain object.

For now, we have only defined the data model, and we haven’t told Vue.js what to do with the data object. Let’s add a template for displaying and adding messages. You can add a template in three ways. One is to add an inline template string using the template property of the options object. It is appropriate to adopt this approach when you create a component that doesn’t have a lot of markups.

The second way is to put the template directly inside the mounting point, 

. Vue.js will parse the template inside #app and replace it with HTML generated by Vue.js. The third way is to put the template markup inside a script tag, for example, <script type="x-template" id="tmplApp">, and put '#tmplApp' as the value of the template property of the options object. We will adopt the second approach here just so we can have the template markup close to the final output. Here is how the template appears:

In line 7, we use the Vue built-inv-for directive to render the messages list. The syntax of the v-for directive is alias in source. In our code, message is alias and messages is source. We don’t need to write vm.messages in order to access the messages property. Just use the exact name that you put in the data object. And by adding the v-for directive to the li tag, we create a v-for block inside the li tag, and that’s where thealias message will be available. You can think of the v-for block as being equivalent to the for-loop block in JavaScript.

In line 8, we use Mustache syntax to output the text property and createdAt property of a message object of the messages list. The createdAt property is a Date object that we add when saving a new message. When Vue.js parses the template and interpolates a Mustache tag, for example, {{message.text}}, it creates data binding between the output and the data. It will replace the tag with the actual value and update the output whenever the text property has been changed. The text interpolation also supports JavaScript expression. For example, you can make the text property always in lower case with {{message.text.toLowerCase()}}.

In line 11, we use another built-in directive, v-on, to attach an event listener to the form’s submitevent.prevent is a modifier, telling Vue.js to call event.preventDefault() so that the browser won’t actually submit the form. addMessage is a method that will be invoked when the form’s submit event is triggered. We will create this method shortly. You can use v-on to attach listeners to all of the normal DOM events, for example, click and mouseover. You can also use it to listen to custom events of Vue’s custom components in the same way. We will see how that works shortly.

In line 12, we use the built-inv-model directive to create a two-way binding between the textarea element and newMessage property of the data object. In this way, whenever the value of the textarea element is changed, the newMessage will be updated automatically. And when newMessage is changed, textarea will be updated accordingly. This is such a nice feature that you can get the value of the textarea element without touching it yourself specifically. It works just as you would imagine it should.

In line 14, we add a button with type="submit" to trigger the submit event of the form. Now, let’s create our addMessage method to listen to that event. We can do it by using the methods property of the options object.

Here is how the options object appears with the addMessage method:

The methods property of the options object takes an object, where you put all of your methods. And inside these methods, you have access to the properties of the data object via this, as you can see that we use this.newMessage and this.messages inside the addMessage method to access them. The method syntax we use here is ES6, but you can also use function expression, as follows:

However, you should not use arrow functions syntax to create methods because you will lose access to the Vue instance via this.

Inside the addMessage method, we add the new message to the messages array using the push() method, and then we reset the newMessage property. Accordingly, Vue.js will clear textarea in the UI automatically. This is the magic of two-way binding, which will be revealed soon.

Now, let’s add a way to delete a message from the UI. Here is what we change in the template:

We add a button and use @click, the short-hand of v-on:click, to attach the listener deleteMessage method to the click event. Instead of putting the method’s name here, we use an inline statement to pass the message object to the method. And here are the updated methods of the options object:

We delete the selected message from the messages array using the Array.prototype.splice() method. Vue.js will detect this change and update the DOM automatically. You don’t need to manipulate the DOM at all.

Now, let’s add the ability to automatically disable the add feature. Let’s say we want to disable the Add button when there are 10 messages in the list. To do that, we can use the built-in v-bind directive to bind the Add button’s disabled attribute with the messages.length >= 10 expression. In this way, Vue.js will update the disabled attribute automatically when the length of the messages array changes. Here is the updated template:

What if we want to change the logic so that the Add button is disabled when the length of the textarea input exceeds 50 characters? You will need to change the value of the v-bind directive to newMessage.length > 50. What if we want to disable the button when there are already 10 messages, or the length of newMessage exceeds 50 characters? We can change the directive value to messages.length >= 10 || newMessage.length > 50. It still works. However, as you can see, the code starts to bloat and it would become hard to maintain when you need to add more logic to decide when the Add button should be disabled.

Here, we can use computed properties. As the name suggests, the value of such a property is computed rather than defined as those in the data object. And Vue.js will track the dependencies of a computed property and update the property’s value when the dependencies change. Let’s add the computed property addDisabled to the options object:

As you can see, the addDisabled computed property is defined as a method of the computed object of the options object. Inside the method, you also have access to the Vue instance via this. For the v-bind directive, there is also a shorthand option, which is a colon (:). Let’s update the Add button in the template to the following:

As you can see, our template becomes much easier to follow and maintain since you keep most of the logic in the JavaScript rather than in the HTML template. 

For the v-bind directive, you can use it to bind the HTML element’s built-in attributes, for example, class and style. You can also use it to bind a Vue’s custom component property. We will see how that works shortly.

By now, we have implemented all of the features of the Messages App. Since we didn’t use¬†<script type="module">, you can open¬†index.html¬†directly using Chrome. If you try it now, you will see something strange. Immediately after opening the file, you can see the template markups that we put inside the mounting point,¬†

, which is awkward. The reason that it behaves in this way is that, before the browser loads Vue.js and executes it, it will display the HTML in the manner it is defined until Vue.js takes control of the DOM and removes the template¬†markups¬†from the mounting point and then replaces it with the new dynamically generated DOM. Let’s fix this by adding the v-cloak directive¬†to the mounting point and inserting a CSS rule to hide the template markups. Vue.js will remove the¬†v-clock¬†directive when the generated DOM is ready. The following are the updates to the¬†index.html¬†file:

Besides the [v-cloak] CSS rule, we add a few other rules to style the UI a little bit, even though it is still very primitive with these rules. Now, if you open it again in the browser, there is no flash anymore. 

By now, you’ve learned how to use the data object, the computed object, and the methods object of the options object of a Vue instance. And you can see that, even though the properties of these objects are defined separately, you can access them in the same way, which is via this

Now, let’s open the Console tab of Chrome’s Developer tools. Instead of using the input field in the UI, let’s add a new message from the console by interacting directly with the vm object, which is the root Vue instance that we created and made available in the global scope. As you can see from the following screenshot, it works as you would expect. This is its simplicity and powerfulness:

The Messages App in Chrome

Apart from the datacomputed, and methods properties, the options object has many other properties that you can use to define a Vue instance.

If you found this article interesting, you can explore Building Applications with Spring 5 and Vue.js 2 to Become efficient in both frontend and backend web development with Spring and Vue. With the help of Building Applications with Spring 5 and Vue.js 2 you’ll get to grips with Spring 5 and Vue.js 2 as you learn how to develop a web application.

Most popular JavaScript frameworks in 2016

In this modern web JavaScript is the most popular language in the web to building the web application. There are many different ways to build modern web application with JavaScript, including a lot of different tool choices, and a lot of new theory to learn.Using the JavaScript we can easily extend the functionalities and logical executions of the component.

Most of the developer are used JQuery along with JavaScript to extend the features of HTML component,but when we talk about the large application it requires more effort and complex in code to develop and the maintain a large application. JavaScript Frameworks help to build fast,interactive and scalable web applications (which includes both single page and multiple page applications).

But, unfortunately! Most programmers find it hard to decide which framework¬†they use¬†and learn. Thus, in this article, I am going to highlight the 7¬†most popular¬†JavaScript Frameworks in 2016. Let’s get started!


7 most popular JavaScript Frameworks in 2016

1. AngularJS

When we talked about javascript frameworks the first word comes in our mind is that AngularJS. AngularJS, as this is the most commonly used JavaScript Framework by javascript developers. It released in 2009, javaScript based open-source front-end framework to create web application or SPA (Single page application) mainly maintained by Google.

It supports the¬†MVC (Model‚Äďview‚Äďcontroller),MVVM (Modal-view-ViewModal) and MVW¬†(Modal-View-Whatever) design paradigm which supports standard two-way data binding. In MVW, whatever stands for ‚Äúwhatever works for you‚ÄĚ. Angular gives you the lot of flexibility to separate presentation logic from business logic and presentation state. In MVC, your data is updated on both the UI (presentation state)¬†and back-end (coding or server side) whenever it detects some changes in the engine.

As the UI components (View) are separated from the Model components, you can easily build reusable components for amazing and user-interfaces!

Recently Angular 2.0 has been released in OCT 2016, which claims to improve the speed & performance of mobile and desktop and take it further via web workers and server-side rendering. Meet huge data requirements by building data models on RxJS, Immutable.js or another push-model. Angular Loved by Millions of developers across the globe and it’s highly recommended for anyone who wants a powerful MVC framework with a strong and modern infrastructure that takes care of everything for you to build single page applications.

Angular is also planning to release Angular 4.0 then it called ‚ÄėAngular‚Äô

Video: See the announcement yourself

(Note: This is my personal favorite JavaScript Framework till date)

2. React

React (sometimes styled React.js or ReactJS) is an open-source JavaScript library which provides a view for data rendered as HTML. Components have been used typically to render React views which contain additional components specified as custom HTML tags. React gives you a trivial virtual DOM, powerful views without templates, unidirectional data flow and explicit mutation. It is very methodical in updating the HTML document when data changes; and a clean separation between components on a modern single-page application. React also support sever-side rendering with with nodejs

As your app comes into existence and develops, it’s advantageous to ensure that your components are used in right manner and React app consists of Reusable components, which makes code reuse, testing, and separation of concerns easy.

ReactJS is not only ‚ÄúV‚ÄĚ in MVC, it has stateful components, it handles mapping from input to state changes, and it renders components. I would highly recommend this Framework if you just need a front-end development Framework to build an incredibly complex and awesome UI through the power View Layers. In this sense, it does everything that an MVC does.

Apart from Facebook and Instagram, there are several companies that use React, including Whatsapp, BBC, PayPal, Netflix, Dropbox, etc.

3. Ember

Ember.js is open-source javascript frameworks like angular and react. Initially it released in 2011, 5 year ago. It has a huge active community online, so whenever  you face any problem, you can ask them.

Ember.js is based on¬†Model‚Äďview‚Äďviewmodel (MVVM)¬†design pattern, which is slightly different than MVC, In the sense that the view model is more than view and handles most if not all of the view‚Äôs display logic

For the fast server-side rendering with nodejs and adding  the animation in UI. we need to use Ember CLI addon Fastboot.js and liquid-fire.js, so the applications have extremely enhanced performance of complex UI with animation.

Ember supports Handlebars integrated templates that update the data changes automatically. It also provides routes, dependency injection, declarative two-way data binding and Custom components.

In 2015, Ember was best JavaScript Framework, competing against AngularJS and React, which should be enough to convince you about its usability and desirability in the JavaScript framework,there are several big companies who’s using ember.js Yahoo!, Zendesk, GROUPON, Yapp, MHElabs, TILDE.

I have not worked much in ember.js but as per my knowledge i¬†would highly recommended this JavaScript Framework to those who don’t necessarily need great flexibility or a large infrastructure, and just prefer to get things done for coping with deadlines.

4. Knockout.js

This JavaScript framework was initially released by Steve Sanderson in 2010 as open source under MIT license. Knockout works under the MVVM design paradigm and that makes it a little different from Ember and Angular.

Knockout has no dependencies on any other libraries and it supports all mainstream browsers like IE 6+, Firefox 3.5+, Chrome, Opera, Safari (desktop/mobile) it’s not popular as much competitors like Angular, Ember or Backbone. The slow growth is simply because of improvements and adding more features in framework.

Developer community is slowly moving to frameworks like React and Angular. Knockout has a great capability and can definitely make a come back but only if someone else adopts it and starts improvement it with the latest web JavaScript technologies.

You can read more about Knockout at knockoutjs.com.

5. Meteor.js

If you LOVE developing the website in pure javascript then MeteorJS is for you. It’s the full stack platform for building modern end to end mobile and web applications completely in JavaScript, for all environments: Application server, Web browser, and Mobile device.

Meteor is the child of Meteor Development Group, it was first released in 2012 as an open source JavaScript framework under MIT license.

Ever since its release, the MeteorJS community too is vibrant and helpful. You would find tons of resources, tutorials and custom packages that give super powers to solve your development errors and develop your app in MeteorJS.

The best thing about MeteorJS is that you use only JavaScript for front-end and backend application development, no need to invest time learning anything else.

The server side packages run in the node.js and you do not need do anything else but MeteorJS packages to access the database, all in JavaScript, this makes developer life easy for building real time web applications.

From Performance perspective, any changes in the database are reflected back on the UI in the real time and vice versa without the handshake between different languages with minimal development efforts.

You can read more about Meteor at –¬†meteor.com.

6. Vue.js

Vue.js is another¬†open-source JavaScript framework was released in 2014.¬†It supports¬†extremely simple API for developing the¬†Reactive¬†components for Modern Web Interfaces¬†Like Ember, it also uses the¬†Model‚Äďview‚Äďviewmodel (MVVM)¬†design paradigm which helpes in the simplification of the design.

The most important feature in this framework is that you can use selective modules with it for your specific needs. For example, you need to write HTML code, fetch the JSON and create a Vue instance to create the small effects that can reused!

Similar like others JavaScript Frameworks, it also uses two-way data binding to update the model and view, plus it also uses binder for communication between the view and data binder. If you thinking that is full-fledged framework to focus on it then I must say it’s not like what you thinking because it’s focuses entirely on the View Layer, so you would need to take care of other components on your own or you can use any other framework with them.

If you are familiar with AngularJS, then you will feel comfortable with this too, as it heavily incorporates the architecture of AngularJS, so many projects can be easily transferred to this Framework if you know the basics of JavaScript.

As I didn’t get chance to work with that but if you just want to get things done or gain JavaScript programming experience, or if you need to learn the nature of different JavaScript Frameworks you should try this.

7. Backbone.js

This framework¬†can be easily integrated to any third-party template engine, however, by default it has dependancy on Underscore¬†templates¬†along with¬†JQuery,¬†It has the¬†RESTful JSON¬†interface with the support of¬†MVC (Model‚Äďview‚Äďcontroller)¬†design pattern.

If you ever heard or used the famous social news networking service reddit, then you will be interested to hear that it uses the Backbone.js for several of its single-page applications. Jeremy Ashkenas who developed the Backbone.js, it has also created the Underscore templates as well as CoffeScript, so you are assured that the developer knows his stuff.

This framework provides models with key-value, views and several modules within a single bundle, so you don’t need to download the other external packages, saving you time. The source-code is available on Github, which means you can further modify it for your needs.¬†There are several big companies who‚Äôs using backbone.js 500px Web, Airbnb, Pinterest, Reddit, WordPress.com, USA Today.com,LinkedIn Mobile.


So, I have just highlighted the 7 most popular JavaScript Frameworks in this article in the hopes that it will help you choose the best JavaScript Framework for your tasks.

If you‚Äôre still having trouble to choose¬†the best JavaScript Framework for your learning or build web application for your project, then please understand the project requirement and client expectations; and if it doesn’t then just try the next one. Rest assured though that any Framework from the list will be good enough.

The best way to learn code is to write code!!!